CRS (Climate Reference Stations) will implement a model reference weather station for meteorological and climatological data.

Its goals are to develop methods and guidelines to evaluate instrumental and environmental components of uncertainty in meterorological data.
It is structured in 2 technical work packages (WP), the Impact WP and Management WP.

 WP 1



Survey the available instrumentation normally adopted for ground based meteorological observations and give prescription on selecting top quality system to form the setup of a climate reference station

Evaluate in laboratory some performances and components of uncertainty in instruments to be involved in the setup of a climate reference station

Prepare a recommendation document on the requirements of instruments for a climate reference station

 WP 2



The aim of this task is to select a group of instruments and prepare them for the field testing in working conditions.


 Objective 1

“To define and evaluate the characteristics of reference grade temperature instruments for climatology use including the commissioning of a reference grade observing station in the lab, for performance assessment”

The results of the project’s survey of commercially available thermometers and shields, both new technologies and those normally adopted by ground based meteorological stations, has led to the selection of devices for performance evaluation in a laboratory setting and the derivation of their associated measurement uncertainties under controlled conditions. A group of instruments was characterised in the laboratory to evaluate the effect of rain, self-heating, hysteresis, calibration, prior to their installation in the field.

Results showed :

  • worst stability of 21 mK @ 20 °C over 5 h
  • worst hysteresis of 50 mK @ 0 °C
  • rain bias up to 4 °C for naturally ventilated shields
  • recovery time of 2-5 h (naturally ventilated) or 1 h (artificially aspirated)

 Objective 2

“To install the laboratory evaluated reference grade observing station in an appropriately identified field site and operate it for at least one year to enable instrument performance to be assessed and measurement uncertainties to be determined”

Performance validation has driven the realisation of a reference station prototype set-up.

A field site close to Turin, Italy, with characteristics aligned with the WMO recommendations has been identified and selected; sensors were selected and acquired for the station installation, and the station was put in place in June 2023.

Formal inauguration was held on 28th September 2023, as a special event connected with the Metrology for Meteorology and Climate (MMC) 2023 conference.

 Objective 3

“To draft and submit a report containing comprehensive recommendations for potential inclusion in documents of (a) the WMO Commission of Instruments and Methods of Observation task team on “Uncertainty” and task team “Classification (WMO guide No. 8), (b) the WMO Commission of Climatology requirements for the recognition of reference stations and c) the GCOS manual for the Global Surface Reference Network.”

The document was submitted to both the WMO, and GCOS expert teams for consideration for inclusion in their guides and requirements for the setting up and operation of climate reference stations. In addition, these recommendations were also submitted to the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) as a basis for consideration for the formation of an EU reference climate network and to the WMO Secretariat of the Standing Committee Measurement Instrumentation and Traceability (SC-MINT). A series of presentations to the committees on the project advances have been made by the project coordinator, in his role of chairperson or member of expert teams, time by time, during the project lifetime.



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CRS project meeting

In the beautiful Slovenian mountain town of Zgornje Jezersko, the CRS first project meeting has been held in presence The status of the project has been discussed, as well as […]

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Senkova Domacija, Jezersko, Slovenia
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Inauguration of CRS Climate Reference Station

During the MMC 2023 event in Stupinigi Palace (Torino), which took place 26-29th September 2023, the Climate Reference Station developed during project CRS was inaugurated. Thanks to the work of […]

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Parco pubblico I Tronchi, Nichelino,